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Biotechnology

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지은이 :  Clark
발행일 :  2015 년
ISBN :  9780123850157
:  0 원
페이지 :  850 페이지
:  2
출판사 :  APCell

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Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers with Microfluidics CFD 3/e Custom Version
Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications 2/e

도서소개

저자 및 역자 소개

차례

Online Study Guide

Dedication

Academic Cell

Preface

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Chapter 1. Basics of BiotechnologyAdvent of the Biotechnology Revolution

Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids

Packaging of Nucleic Acids

Bacteria as the Workhorses of Biotechnology

Escherichia coli Is the Model Bacterium

Many Bacteria Contain Plasmids

Other Bacteria in Biotechnology

Basic Genetics of Eukaryotic Cells

Yeast and Filamentous Fungi in Biotechnology

Yeast Mating Types and Cell Cycle

Multicellular Organisms as Research Models

Animal Cell Culture in Vitro

Arabidopsis thaliana, a Model Flowering Plant

Viruses Used in Genetics Research

Subviral Infectious Agents and Other Gene Creatures

Summary

 

Chapter 2. DNA, RNA, and ProteinThe Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Transcription Expresses Genes

Making RNA

Transcription Stop Signals

The Number of Genes on an mRNA Varies

Eukaryotic Transcription is More Complex

Regulation of Transcription in Prokaryotes

Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes

Eukaryotic mRNA is Processed Before Making Protein

Translating the Genetic Code into Proteins

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation

Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Synthesize Their Own Proteins

Summary

 

Chapter 3. Recombinant DNA TechnologyDNA Isolation and Purification

Electrophoresis Separates DNA Fragments by Size

Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA; Ligase Joins DNA

Methods of Detection for Nucleic Acids

Complementary Strands Melt Apart and Reanneal

Hybridization of DNA or RNA in Southern and Northern Blots

Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)

General Properties of Cloning Vectors

Specific Types of Cloning Vectors

Getting Cloned Genes into Bacteria by Transformation

Constructing a Library of Genes

Screening the Library of Genes by Hybridization

Eukaryotic Expression Libraries

Features of Expression Vectors

Recombineering Increases the Speed of Gene Cloning

Gateway® Cloning Vectors

Summary

 

Chapter 4. DNA Synthesis In Vivo and In VitroIntroduction

Replication of DNA

Comparing Replication in Gene Creatures, Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes

In Vitro DNA Synthesis

Chemical Synthesis of DNA

Chemical Synthesis of Complete Genes

Polymerase Chain Reaction Uses in Vitro Synthesis to Amplify Small Amounts of DNA

Modifications of Basic PCR

Reverse Transcriptase PCR

PCR in Genetic Engineering

PCR of DNA can Determine the Sequence of Bases

Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies

Summary

 

Chapter 5. RNA-Based TechnologiesNoncoding RNA Plays Many Roles

RNA Coordinates Genomic Integrity in Eukaryotes

RNA Protects Genomes from Invading Viruses

RNA Modulates Transcription

Noncoding RNAs Take Part in RNA Processing

Riboswitches are Controlled by Effector Molecules

RNA Catalyzes Enzyme Reactions

Summary

 

Chapter 6. Immune TechnologyIntroduction

Antibodies, Antigens, and Epitopes

The Great Diversity of Antibodies

Structure and Function of Immunoglobulins

Monoclonal Antibodies for Clinical Use

Humanization of Monoclonal Antibodies

Humanized Antibodies in Clinical Applications

Antibody Engineering

Diabodies and Bispecific Antibody Constructs

ELISA Assay

The ELISA as a Diagnostic Tool

Visualizing Cell Components using Antibodies

Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

Immune Memory and Vaccination

Creating a Vaccine

Making Vector Vaccines using Homologous Recombination

Reverse Vaccinology

Identifying New Antigens for Vaccines

DNA Vaccines Bypass the need to Purify Antigens

Edible Vaccines

Summary

 

Chapter 7. NanobiotechnologyIntroduction

Visualization at the Nanoscale

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Atomic Force Microscopy

Weighing Single Bacteria and Virus Particles

Nanoparticles and Their Uses

Nanoparticles for Labeling

Quantum Size Effect and Nanocrystal Colors

Nanoparticles for Delivery of Drugs, DNA, or RNA

Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy

Assembly of Nanocrystals by Microorganisms

Nanotubes

Antibacterial Nanocarpets

Detection of Viruses by Nanowires

Ion Channel Nanosensors

Nanoengineering of DNA

DNA Origami

DNA Mechanical Nanodevices

Controlled Denaturation of DNA by Gold Nanoparticles

Controlled Change of Protein Shape by DNA

Biomolecular Motors

Summary

 

Chapter 8. Genomics and Gene ExpressionIntroduction

Genetic Mapping Techniques

Gaps Remain in the Human Genome

Survey of the Human Genome

Noncoding Components of the Human Genome

Bioinformatics and Computer Analysis

Medicine and Genomics

DNA Accumulates Mutations over Time

Genetic Evolution

From Pharmacology to Pharmacogenetics

Gene Expression and Microarrays

Making DNA Microarrays

Hybridization ON DNA Microarrays

Monitoring Gene Expression Using Whole-Genome Tiling Arrays

Monitoring Gene Expression by RNA-Seq

Monitoring Gene Expression of Single Genes

Epigenetics and Epigenomics

Epigenomics in Higher Organisms

Summary

 

Chapter 9. ProteomicsIntroduction

Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins

Western Blotting of Proteins

High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Separates Protein Mixtures

Digestion of Proteins by Proteases

Mass Spectrometry for Protein Identification

Preparing Proteins for Mass Spectroscopy

Protein Quantification Using Mass Spectrometry

Protein Tagging Systems

Phage Display Library Screening

Protein Interactions: The Yeast Two-Hybrid System

Protein Interactions by Co-immunoprecipitation

Protein Arrays

Metabolomics

Summary

 

Chapter 10. Recombinant ProteinsProteins and Recombinant DNA Technology

Expression of Eukaryotic Proteins in Bacteria

Insulin and Diabetes

Cloning and Genetic Engineering of Insulin

Translation Expression Vectors

Codon Usage Effects

Avoiding Toxic Effects of Protein Overproduction

Inclusion Bodies and Protein Refolding

Increasing Protein Stability

Improving Protein Secretion

Protein Fusion Expression Vectors

Protein Glycosylation

Expression of Proteins by Eukaryotic Cells

Expression of Proteins by Yeast

Expression of Proteins by Insect Cells

Expression of Proteins by Mammalian Cells

Expression of Multiple Subunits in Mammalian Cells

Comparing Expression Systems

Summary

 

Chapter 11. Protein EngineeringIntroduction

Engineering Disulfide Bonds

Improving Stability In Other Ways

Changing Binding Site Specificity

Structural Scaffolds

Directed Evolution

Recombining Domains

DNA Shuffling

Combinatorial Protein Libraries

Creation of De Novo Proteins

Expanding the Genetic Code

Roles of Non-Natural Amino Acids

Biomaterials Design Relies on Protein Engineering

Engineered Binding Proteins

Summary

 

Chapter 12. Environmental BiotechnologyIntroduction

Identifying New Genes with Metagenomics

Culture Enrichment for Environmental Samples

Sequence-Dependent Techniques for Metagenomics

Function- or Activity-Based Evaluation of The Environment

Ecology and Metagenomics

Natural Attenuation of Pollutants

Biofuels and Bioenergy

Microbial Fuel Cells

Summary

 

Chapter 13. Synthetic BiologyIntroduction

Ethanol, Elephants, and Pathway Engineering

Degradation of Starch

Degradation of Cellulose

Second-Generation Biofuels

Biodiesel

Ice-Forming Bacteria and Frost

Biorefining of Fossil Fuels

Biosynthesis of β-Lactam Antibiotics

Biosynthetic Plastics are Also Biodegradable

The Integrated Circuits Approach

Synthetic Genetic Materials: xDNA And XNA

Designer Bacteria

Summary

 

Chapter 14. From Cell Phones to CyborgsIntroduction

Cell Phones

Robotics

Radio-Controlled Genes

Insect Cyborgs

Soft Robotics

Summary

 

Chapter 15. Transgenic Plants and Plant BiotechnologyIntroduction

History of Plant Breeding

Plant Tissue Culture

Genetic Engineering of Plants

Biotechnology Improves Crops

Resistance: Nature Responds to Transgenic Plants

Functional Genomics in Plants

Summary

 

Chapter 16. Transgenic AnimalsNew and Improved Animals

Creating Transgenic Animals

Larger Mice Illustrate Transgenic Technology

Recombinant Protein Production Using Transgenic Livestock

Knockout Mice for Medical Research

Alternative Ways to Make Transgenic Animals

Location Effects on Expression of the Transgene

Deliberate Control of Transgene Expression

Gene Control by Site-Specific Recombination

Transgenic Insects

Practical Transgenic Animals

Applications of RNA Technology in Transgenics

Natural Transgenics and DNA Ingestion

Summary

 

Chapter 17. Inherited Defects and Gene TherapyIntroduction

Hereditary Defects in Higher Organisms

Hereditary Defects Due to Multiple Genes

Defects Due to Haploinsufficiency

Dominant Mutations may be Positive or Negative

Deleterious Tandem Repeats and Dynamic Mutations

Defects in Imprinting and Methylation

Mitochondrial Defects

Identification of Defective Genes

Genetic Screening and Counseling

General Principles of Gene Therapy

Adenovirus Vectors in Gene Therapy

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy

Retrovirus Gene Therapy

Retrovirus Gene Therapy for Scid

Adeno-Associated Virus

Nonviral Delivery in Gene Therapy

Liposomes and Lipofection in Gene Therapy

Aggressive Gene Therapy for Cancer

Using RNA in Therapy

Antisense RNA and Other Oligonucleotides

AptamersBlocking Proteins with DNA or RNA

Ribozymes in Gene Therapy

RNA Interference in Gene Therapy

Gene Editing with Nucleases

Genome Editing with Engineered Nucleases

Genome Editing with CRISPR Nucleases

Summary

 

Chapter 18. Cloning and Stem CellsIntroduction

What is a Stem Cell?

Identifying Adult Stem Cells

The Key Features of a Stem Cell Niche

Hematopoietic Stem Cells in the Bone Marrow

Intestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Stem Cell Therapy

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Dolly the Cloned Sheep

Practical Reasons for Cloning Animals

Improving Livestock by Pathway Engineering

Imprinting and Developmental Problems in Cloned Animals

Summary

 

Chapter 19. CancerCancer is Genetic in Origin

Environmental Factors and Cancer

Normal Cell Division: The Cell Cycle

Cellular Communication

Receptors and Signal Transmission

Cell Division Responds to External Signals

Genes that Affect Cancer

Oncogenes and Proto-Oncogenes

Detection of Oncogenes by Transformation

Types of Mutations that Generate Oncogenes

The RAS OncogeneHyperactive Protein

The MYC OncogeneOverproduction of Protein

Tumor-Suppressor Genes or Anti-Oncogenes

The p16, p21, and p53 Anti-Oncogenes

Formation of a Tumor

Inherited Susceptibility to Cancer

Cancer-Causing Viruses

Engineered Cancer-Killing Viruses

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Epigenomics

Micro RNA Regulation and Cancer

Anticancer Agents

Summary

 

Chapter 20. Aging and ApoptosisIntroduction

Genetic Phenomena Associated with Aging

Cellular Dysfunction and Aging

Cellular Senescence

Programmed Cell Death

Apoptosis Involves a Proteolytic Cascade

Mammalian Apoptosis

Caspases

Execution Phase of Apoptosis

Corpse Clearance in Apoptosis

Control of Apoptotic Pathways in Development

Necroptosis

Metabolic Control of Cell Death

Cancer, Aging, and Programmed Cell Death

Programmed Cell Death in Bacteria

Summary

 

Chapter 21. Viral and Prion InfectionsViral Infections and Antiviral Agents

Interferons Coordinate the Antiviral Response

Antiviral Therapy using RNA Interference

Influenza is a Negative-Strand Rna Virus

The AIDS Retrovirus

Chemokine Receptors Act as Co-Receptors for Hiv

Treatment of the AIDS Retrovirus

Infectious Prion Disease

Detection of Pathogenic Prions

Approaches to Treating Prion Disease

Prions in Yeast

Using Yeast Prions as Models

Amyloid Proteins in Neurological Diseases

Summary

 

Chapter 22. Biological Warfare: Infectious Disease and BioterrorismIntroduction

The Natural History of Biological Warfare

Microbes Versus Man: The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance

A Brief History of Human Biological Warfare

Identifying Suitable Biological Warfare Agents

A Closer Look at Select Biological Warfare Agents

Enhancing Biological Warfare Agents with Biotechnology

Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

Summary

 

Chapter 23. Forensic Molecular BiologyThe Genetic Basis of Identity

Blood, Sweat, and Tears

Forensic DNA Testing

DNA Fingerprinting

Using Repeated Sequences in Fingerprinting

Probability and DNA Testing

The Use of DNA Evidence

DNA is Also Used to Identify Animals

Tracing Genealogies by Mitochondrial DNA and the Y Chromosome

Identifying the Remains of the Russian Imperial Family

Gene Doping and Athletics

Genomics Drives Advances in Forensics

Summary

 

Chapter 24. Bioethics in BiotechnologyIntroduction

Principles of Bioethics

Use of the Precautionary Principle

The Power of Information

Possible Dangers to Health from Biotechnology

Genetically Modified Organisms

Human Enhancement, Cloning, and Engineering

Ethics Changes over Time

Summary

 

Glossary

Index